In my new post I follow up on the 1891 and the seminal article by Bunjiro Kotô published in 1893:

In this article, probably for the first time in the world, B. Kotô makes detailed descriptions of the earthquake surface rupture and offsets, and explicitly linked to faulting.

Kotô gave a beautiful 3D sketch 👇🏼 and an amazing narrative about mole-tracks (a now commonly used term for some specific surface ruptures): “Amongst the extraordinary things done by the earthquake, one that always drew attention was the earth-rent. It strikes across hills and paddy-fields alike, cutting up the soft earth into enormous clods and raising them above the surface. It resembles the pathway of a gigantic mole more than anything else.”

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