Representation of core-shell lanthanide doped for (UCNPs) capped with oleic acid.
UCNPs can absorb two or more low energy and convert them into one photon with higher energy, which is then emitted. As-prepared UCNPs are usually capped with hydrophobic oleic acid to prevent aggregation with other nanoparticles and to control their growth.
They are of particular interest for bio-imaging, bio-sensing and nanomedicine, but also for photovoltaic applications.

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