- Update October 2022 -

Observations at the summit craters:
At Bocca Nuova, the powerful and pulsating gas emission continued in October. Deep-seated explosions accompanied by loud thunder also occurred frequent. However, no material was ejected. At the Southeast Crater complex, gas was continuously released from the central crater area (between the New and Old Southeast crater). Fractures along the upper southern flank of the cone persistently released some gas. Gas emission from fumaroles also occurred on the upper northern flank of the cone. A hot spot exists on the inner western crater wall, which is perceived as a glowing spot at night by means of light-sensitive webcams. Voragine and Northeast Crater are blocked and released little gas.

Geophisical parameters:
Seismic activity was low and concentrated on the northeast flank. The strongest quake had a magnitude of 2.4.
Volcanic tremor continued at medium levels in October and was localised below the central crater at 2500 - 3000 m altitude.
GPS measurements showed a continuation of the slow expansion of the volcanic edifice, with a slight increase in velocity.

Gas emissions:
Sulphur dioxide emissions at the summit craters were at a medium level in October.
Ground carbon dioxide emissions (ETNAGAS station) fluctuated on the limit between medium and low levels in October. They were lower than in September.
The concentration of Helium isotopes (3He/4He ratio) in the Etna area, determined on 13 October, was slightly higher than last month. The measured value reached a high level.

My interpretation of the data and speculations about the further development:
The inflation of the volcanic edifice continued in October and even accelerated somewhat. Presumably, magma continues to rise beneath the mountain and migrate at depth along the various rift systems. This process is slowly pushing Etna's eastern flank further east. The slight increase in the helium isotope 3He indicates that more fresh magma rose again in October. In contrast, carbon dioxide emissions decreased. Seismicity also remained low. From these data, I conclude that new eruptive activity is not imminent. In a few months, however, there could be renewed Strombolian activity. This is probably most likely to occur at the Southeast Crater complex or in Bocca Nuova.

- Own observations via webcams.

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