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Meanwhile, cellophane bees (genus Colletes) keep going strong here in Cambridge, UK, despite having arrived at what ought to be the end of their flight season. Will find out next weekend whether they are still around.

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Flowers first feed pollen and nectar to wasp adults in exchange for (unwitting) pollination services. Then the fruit feeds insect larvae who, in turn, host the endoparasitoid wasp larvae.
Torymus sp. wasp as seen in the Cambridge Botanic Gardens on October 31st.

An extremely off season mining bee screams like few other bioindicators. This British Andrena sp. most likely ought to have been dead since late August, yet here we are, October 31st, Halloween.

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