Blumenfield, Kempler, and Krajcik (2006) suggest engagement in grounded in four factors:
Value- Learners tend to be engaged with material and lessons they believe are important to them. Value is also closely related to motivation, interest, and goals, all of which are addressed in the next section.
Competence- Learners tend to engage in activities they believe are within their abilities. Competence is grounded in one’s knowledge, their metacognitive abilities and their self-efficacy.
Relatedness- Learners tend to be engaged when they feel positive social connection to their peers.
Autonomy- Learners tend to be engaged when they can exercise choice about what they will study and their plan of study.
Blumenfield, P., Kempler, T., & Krajcik, J. (2006). Motivation and cognitive engagement in learning environments. In R. Keith Sawyer (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Learning Science, (pp. 475-488). Cambridge University Press.