Pinned toot

🔔 Science Summary for last month



----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

The Wikipedia article also has wikilinks to the relevant Wikipedia articles and timelines.

Some more relevant information (e.g. rough criteria) can be found on the list's talk page. If you can't read a paper you could use Sci-Hub.se

------------------ Sources ------------------

pastebin.com/nqzfFVjy

Also includes a few missing items.

--------- Monthly newsletter ---------

mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

🔔 Science Summary for last month



----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

The Wikipedia article also has wikilinks to the relevant Wikipedia articles and timelines.

Some more relevant information (e.g. rough criteria) can be found on the list's talk page. If you can't read a paper you could use Sci-Hub.se

------------------ Sources ------------------

pastebin.com/nqzfFVjy

Also includes a few missing items.

--------- Monthly newsletter ---------

mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

Science Summary for last month



----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

The relevant Wikipedia articles are also linked there.
Some more info can be found on the talk page.

------------------ Sources ------------------

pastebin.com/faDFPqMV

--------- Monthly newsletter ---------

mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

Science Summary for last month

Sources below.

Monthly newsletter: mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

Monthly newsletter: mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

Items which I added to the Wikipedia list are marked with a star.
Some more relevant information can be found on the list's talk page.

------------------ Sources ------------------

Mitochondria
newscientist.com/article/22481
sci-hub.tw/https://www.nature.

*Robot chemist
phys.org/news/2020-07-robot-sc
sci-hub.tw/https://www.nature.

*GPLD1
medicalxpress.com/news/2020-07
sci-hub.tw/https://science.sci

*Aging routes
phys.org/news/2020-07-paths-ag
sci-hub.tw/https://science.sci

Mars
UAE
bbc.co.uk/news/science-environ
China
bbc.co.uk/news/science-environ
USA
nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-ul

*Sloan Digital Sky Survey
news.sky.com/story/largest-eve
sdss.org/press-releases/no-nee

Bacteria
nytimes.com/2020/07/28/science
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

SARS-CoV-2
+*G614
medicalxpress.com/news/2020-07
cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8
Neanderthals
nytimes.com/2020/07/04/health/
biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/ea
IFR & CFR
nytimes.com/2020/07/04/health/
Airborne disease
nytimes.com/2020/07/04/health/

_________

*Quantum fluctuations
phys.org/news/2020-07-quantum-
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Solar cells
phys.org/news/2020-07-crystal-
sci-hub.tw/https://science.sci

*Palm oil certification
phys.org/news/2020-07-certifie
sciencedirect.com/science/arti

*Earth's magnetic field
phys.org/news/2020-07-simulati
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

*1.5 °C
edition.cnn.com/2020/07/09/wor
public.wmo.int/en/media/press-

*+Spider silk proteins
phys.org/news/2020-07-spider-s
nature.com/articles/s42003-020

*X Chromosome
phys.org/news/2020-07-scientis
sci-hub.tw/https://www.nature.

*Manganese-eating bacteria
phys.org/news/2020-07-bacteria
sci-hub.tw/https://www.nature.

*Methane-emissions
phys.org/news/2020-07-global-m
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.
essd.copernicus.org/articles/1

*Iron metabolism
phys.org/news/2020-07-blood-ir
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

+Exoplanets
scientificamerican.com/article
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.

Americas
bbc.co.uk/news/science-environ
sci-hub.tw/https://www.nature.

*Methane
theguardian.com/environment/20
royalsocietypublishing.org/doi

*Reef sharks
phys.org/news/2020-07-sharks-r
sci-hub.tw/https://www.nature.

*Paper-retraction
phys.org/news/2020-07-paper-hu
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

*Protein design
phys.org/news/2020-07-machine-
sci-hub.tw/https://science.sci

ITER
theguardian.com/environment/20

*Magnetic pyrite
phys.org/news/2020-07-gold-val
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

*Younger Dryas
phys.org/news/2020-07-texas-ca
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

------------ Not included ------------

- Scientist at CERN report that the LHCb experiment has observed a four-charm tetraquark particle never seen before, which is likely to be the first of a previously undiscovered class of particles

- Theory for the development of pentadiamonds - harder diamonds with a Young's modulus of almost 1700 GPa

- Carbon was formed mainly in white dwarf stars, particularly those bigger than two solar masses

- A more efficient video coding standard (H.266) is finalised; requires less data volume and is especially useful for 8K streaming

- A cobalt-free, high-energy, lithium-ion battery is developed

- Evidence that a few mildly affected or recovering COVID-19 patients can be left with serious or potentially fatal brain conditions, such as delirium, inflammation, nerve damage, and psychosis

* Scientists assess that the geoengineering technique of enhanced rock weathering – spreading finely crushed basalt on fields – has potential use for carbon dioxide removal by nations, identifying costs, opportunities and engineering challenges

- Discovery of the South Pole Wall, a massive cosmic structure formed by a giant wall of galaxies (a galaxy filament) that extends across at least 700 million light-years of space

* Phytoplankton primary production in the Arctic Ocean increased by 57% between 1998 and 2018 due to higher concentrations, suggesting the ocean may be able to support higher trophic level production and additional carbon fixation in the future

* Scientists report that the Moon formed about 85 million years earlier than thought (4.425 ±0.025 bya) and that it hosted an ocean of magma for longer than previously thought (~200 million years)

* A reusable aluminium surface for efficient solar-based water sanitation to below the WHO and EPA standards for drinkable water is developed

* A technique to produce a degradable version of the tough thermoset plastic pDCPD which may also be applicable to other plastics, that aren't part of the ca. 75% of plastics that are recycable is developed

- Observation of a "hard tidal disruption event candidate" near the nucleus of galaxy NGC 6297 with rare "hard powerlaw X-ray spectra"

- A researcher describes the nature and rise of the "robot prosumer", derived from modern-day technology and related participatory culture, that, in turn, was substantially predicted earlier by science fiction writers

- A new AI algorithm achieves the highest accuracy to date in identifying prostate cancer, with 98% sensitivity and 97% specificity

* Scientists of the NA62 experiment at CERN claim to have presented first evidence of a highly rare process – a decay of a charged kaon – predicted in the Standard Model which may help identifying possible deviations from the model

* Work honored by Nobel prizes clusters in only a few scientific fields with only 36/71 having received at least one Nobel prize of the 114/849 domains they suggest science could be divided into. Five of the 114 domains were shown to make up over half of the Nobel prizes awarded 1995–2017 (particle physics [14%], cell biology [12.1%], atomic physics [10.9%], neuroscience [10.1%], molecular chemistry [5.3%])

* Geochemical data shows that the origin of 50 of the 52 sarsen megaliths used to construct Stonehenge is most likely West Woods, Wiltshire, 25 km north of Stonehenge

* Gut microbiomes that produce high levels of gallic acid or gallic acid, which can be found in many antioxidant-rich foods considered healthy and earlier reported to induce cell death in prostate and breast cancer cells, itself can switch mutated p53 proteins from being tumour-suppressive to accelerate the growth of bowel cancers in mice

* Two ice caps in Nunavut, Canada have disappeared completely, confirming predictions of a 2016/2017 study that they would melt completely within the next five years

Science Summary for last month

Sources below.

Monthly newsletter: mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

#2020 -review

Monthly newsletter: mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

Items which I added to the Wikipedia list are marked with a star.
Some more relevant information can be found on the list's talk page.

If you can't access a paper you could put sci-hub.se/ before the URL of the paper.

------------------ Sources ------------------

Extended childhood*
phys.org/news/2020-06-childhoo
royalsocietypublishing.org/doi

Mass extinctions*
nytimes.com/2020/06/01/science
pnas.org/content/117/24/13596

Reaction network*
phys.org/news/2020-06-reveals-
sci-hub.se/https://www.pnas.or

Foxes*
phys.org/news/2020-06-city-fox
royalsocietypublishing.org/doi

COVID-19
Hydroxychloroquine*
theguardian.com/world/2020/jun
nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa201
NRP1*
reuters.com/article/us-health-
biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/ea
biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/ea
Dexamethasone
theguardian.com/world/2020/jun
ox.ac.uk/news/2020-06-16-dexam
Toilet flushing*
phys.org/news/2020-06-flushing
aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/
Genes*
news-medical.net/news/20200618
biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/20
Asymptomatic cases*
reuters.com/article/us-health-
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Torpor*
newatlas.com/medical/suspended
nature.com/articles/s41586-020
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Technosignatures*
phys.org/news/2020-06-intellig

Black holes*
phys.org/news/2020-06-year-old
nature.com/articles/s41567-020

_________

Yellowstone
phys.org/news/2020-06-discover
pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/g

Maya pyramid platform
nationalgeographic.com/history
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Epigenetics*
phys.org/news/2020-06-mothers-
sciencedirect.com/science/arti

Radioactivity*
phys.org/news/2020-06-radioact
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

Egg cells*
newscientist.com/article/22456
royalsocietypublishing.org/doi

Mentors*
phys.org/news/2020-06-tacit-kn
pnas.org/content/117/25/14077

Bose-Einstein condensates*+
phys.org/news/2020-06-quantum-
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Crocodile ancestors*
phys.org/news/2020-06-ancient-
nature.com/articles/s41598-020

CRISPR gene editing*
newscientist.com/article/22460
crisprtx.gcs-web.com/news-rele

Bow & arrow*
phys.org/news/2020-06-discover
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

Coal combustion*
phys.org/news/2020-06-coal-bur
pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/g

Core-mantle boundary*+
phys.org/news/2020-06-scientis
science.sciencemag.org/content

Clouds*
phys.org/news/2020-06-latest-c
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

Civilizations
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.

Color vision*
nytimes.com/2020/06/19/science
pnas.org/content/early/2020/06

Synthetic molecular motor*
phys.org/news/2020-06-smallest
pnas.org/content/early/2020/06

Ocean acidification*
phys.org/news/2020-06-arctic-o
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Quantum communication*
phys.org/news/2020-06-techniqu
journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/
journals.aps.org/prx/abstract/

Warning on GDP-affluence*
phys.org/news/2020-06-affluenc
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

Quasar*
phys.org/news/2020-06-astronom
arxiv.org/abs/2006.13452

------------------ Not included ------------------

- Astronomers report narrowing down the source of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs), which may now plausibly include "compact-object mergers and magnetars arising from normal core collapse supernovae"
- The existence of quark cores in neutron stars is confirmed by Finnish researchers
- *Mitochondrial genetic divergence could be used to predict the reproductive compatibility of mammalian hybrid offspring and ancient anatomically modern humans (AMH), Neanderthals and Denisovans were genetically closer than polar bears and brown bears (1.6% divergence for Neanderthals and AMH and 2.4% for the bears)
- Kepler-160, a Sun-like star, likely has a rocky planet with orbit and light levels very similar to Earth
- *Astronomers report that results from research of Hubble Space Telescope data and other supporting data, to be published in an upcoming paper, show that galaxies must have formed much earlier than previously thought – earlier than can be probed with the Hubble Space Telescope.
- *Bacterial mass lysis for colony-defense occurs when the bacteria will die anyway from toxin exposure from competing bacteria
- NASA astronaut Kathy Sullivan, the first woman to walk in space in 1984, is the first woman to reach the deepest part of the ocean
- Computer experts warn Windows 10 users to update their computers with the latest security patches from Microsoft in order to avoid being infected with the wormlike SMBGhost security vulnerability, for which a proof-of-concept (PoC) exploit had been released on 2 June
- *Pesticides contribute to monarch butterfly declines in the western United States
- *A scientific analysis estimates that as of 2020 about 1.7 bn people (UI 1·0–2·4) people, or 22% (UI 15–28%) of the world population, belong to a vulnerable group which has at least one underlying condition that raises the risk of severe disease when contracting COVID-19 and that 4% would require hospital admission if infected
- Astronomers map the atmosphere of the red supergiant star Antares for the most detailed such map yet of a star other than the Sun
- An excess of 53 events is reported at the XENON dark matter research facility, which may hint at the existence of hypothetical solar axions
- NASA scientists report that exoplanets with oceans may be common in the Milky Way galaxy, based on mathematical modeling studies
- *First open-source all-atom model and simulation of a full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
- *Researchers report to have calculated a possibly testable upper limit for a fundamental period of a possibly quantized time based on a physical model of time as an oscillating variable
- *A novel cancer immunotherapy that included a personalized vaccine was shown to be successful in dogs
- Dwarf planet Pluto may have had a subsurface ocean
- *Scientists demonstrate that it is possible for fish to migrate via ingestion of fish eggs by birds
- Astronomers report details of the merging, in the "mass gap" of cosmic collisions, of a first-ever "mystery object": either a possibly too-heavy neutron star or a too-light black hole
- *World Meteorological Organization announces a possible new temperature-record of 38 °C north of the Arctic Circle, which it seeks to verify and assess
- Largest ever tanzanite gemstones discovered
- *World Meteorological Organization announces new records for the longest lightning bolt (700 km) and the "megaflash" with the longest duration (16.73 s)
- Astronomers report detecting a gravitational wave, named GW190521g, that is associated with, for the first time ever, a flash of light from the merger, within the vicinity of a third very large black hole, of two smaller black holes
- *Scientists report, with a genetic study, the identification of the origin of domesticated chicken
- *In two papers scientists report the development of the possibly most lightweight biopolymer aerogel that is flexible and durable and has a relatively high electromagnetic shielding-performance
- *Scientists report a possible explanation for the origin of high-energy cosmic neutrinos observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, suggesting that emissions of coronae of supermassive black holes, such as possibly the active galactic nucleus of Messier 77, may be their source

Science Summary for last month

Sources below.

Monthly newsletter: mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

#2020 -review &D

----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

Items which I added to the Wikipedia list are marked with a star.
Some more relevant information can be found at the list's talk page.

--------- Monthly newsletter ---------

mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

------------------ Sources ------------------

Projections
bbc.com/news/science-environme
pnas.org/content/117/21/11350

*Chloroplasts
newatlas.com/science/semi-synt
sci-hub.se/https://science.sci

SARS-CoV-2
*RmYN02
phys.org/news/2020-05-relative
cell.com/current-biology/fullt
*Infection profile
phys.org/news/2020-05-potentia
nature.com/articles/s41586-020
*CO2-emissions
cbsnews.com/news/carbon-emissi
nature.com/articles/s41558-020
*Test
phys.org/news/2020-05-experime
pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsna

*Blood cells
phys.org/news/2020-06-syntheti
pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsna

*Microalgae
phys.org/news/2020-05-scientis
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

*Hemoglobin
phys.org/news/2020-05-mobile-h
osapublishing.org/optica/abstr

*'Oumuamua
scientificamerican.com/article
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.

*Neolithic
phys.org/news/2020-05-heighten
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

_________

*North Magnetic Pole
phys.org/news/2020-05-explanat
sci-hub.se/https://www.nature.

Black hole
theverge.com/2020/5/6/21249111
aanda.org/articles/aa/full_htm

*'Oumuamua
independent.co.uk/life-style/g
news.mit.edu/2020/catch-inters

*Wet-bulb temperatures
research.noaa.gov/News/ArtMID/
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

Thunderspy
wired.com/story/thunderspy-thu
thunderspy.io/

*Orbitronics
phys.org/news/2020-05-scientis
journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/

+*Arthropod
phys.org/news/2020-05-world-ol
tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.10

Mass extinction
nytimes.com/2020/06/10/science
pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/g

*Neanderthals
phys.org/news/2020-05-supercom
sciencedirect.com/science/arti

*Extraterrestrial life
phys.org/news/2020-05-odds-lif
pnas.org/content/117/22/11995

*South Atlantic Anomaly
independent.co.uk/life-style/g
esa.int/Applications/Observing

*Early galaxy
nytimes.com/2020/05/20/science
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

*Neanderthal-haplotypes
phys.org/news/2020-05-women-ne
academic.oup.com/mbe/advance-a

Internet speed
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

*Proxima Centauri b
phys.org/news/2020-05-espresso
arxiv.org/abs/2005.12114v1

Fast Blue Optical Transient
phys.org/news/2020-05-astrophy
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.

+*Space debris
phys.org/news/2020-05-space-ju
pnas.org/content/117/23/12756

SpaceX
nytimes.com/2020/05/30/science

------------------ Not included ------------------

- A brown bear sighting in Spain's Invernadeiro national park is reported for the first time in 150 years

- A maiden flight of China's most powerful rocket to date, the Long March 5B, occurs

- *Proof-of-concept of a quantum radar developed

- *A Seyfert flare 3.5 million years ago with a burst of ionizing radiation from Sagittarius A* created the large X-ray/gamma-ray Fermi Bubbles around the galactic center and reached so far into space that it illuminated the Magellanic Stream – a stream of gas extending from two of the Milky Way's satellite galaxies.

- *Genomic analysis shows that mainland East Asians have a closer genetic relationship to northern Neolithic East Asians instead of southern ones and that migration and gene flow played important roles during the Neolithic Revolution

- *Researchers claim to have developed a low-noise silicon single-photon source compatible with large-scale quantum photonics

- *Researchers project a net increase in the extent and biomass of green snow algae with coastal Antarctica turning more green due to climate change

- *Genome-wide data of 19 Siberians of the Upper Paleolithic to Bronze Age of up to ca. 14,000 years ago show the most deeply divergent connection between Upper Paleolithic Siberians and the indigenous peoples of the Americas and that long-range human mobility across Eurasia during the Early Bronze Age as well as prolonged local admixture that lead to an ancestry that gave rise to all non-Arctic Native Americans.

- One-minute novel coronavirus test with 90% accuracy developed

- *Evidence for the early differentiation of the cline of Italian variation dating back to the Late Glacial and for Neolithic and distinct Bronze Age migrations having further differentiated their gene pools. Ancestors of present-day Italians are believed to have experienced an extraordinary history of migrations and gene flow as main factors underlying their genetic diversity which is one of the highest across Europe

- *Comet ATLAS reaches its nearest point to Earth. The Solar Orbiter spacecraft flies through comet ATLAS' ion tail between May 31 and June 1 as well as its dust tail in the solar wind on June 6.

- Sensor only 11 atoms in size, able to capture spin waves developed

- Chicxulub impactor produced a "worst case" scenario in terms of lethality for the dinosaurs, arriving from the north-east at a 60° angle, which maximised the amount of gases and debris thrown up into Earth's atmosphere

- Novae - likely created in a close binary star system consisting of a white dwarf and either a main sequence, subgiant, or red giant star - are the galactic producers of the element lithium

- *Social networks can function poorly as pathways for inconvenient truths and the interplay between communication and action during disasters may depend on the structure of social networks

Science Summary for last month

Sources below.

Monthly newsletter: mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

#2020 -review &D

----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

Items which I added to the Wikipedia list are marked with a star.
Some more relevant information can be found at the list's talk page.

--------- Monthly newsletter ---------

mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

------------------ Sources ------------------

Projections
bbc.com/news/science-environme
pnas.org/content/117/21/11350

*Chloroplasts
newatlas.com/science/semi-synt
sci-hub.se/https://science.sci

SARS-CoV-2
*RmYN02
phys.org/news/2020-05-relative
cell.com/current-biology/fullt
*Infection profile
phys.org/news/2020-05-potentia
nature.com/articles/s41586-020
*CO2-emissions
cbsnews.com/news/carbon-emissi
nature.com/articles/s41558-020
*Test
phys.org/news/2020-05-experime
pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsna

*Blood cells
phys.org/news/2020-06-syntheti
pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsna

*Microalgae
phys.org/news/2020-05-scientis
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

*Hemoglobin
phys.org/news/2020-05-mobile-h
osapublishing.org/optica/abstr

*'Oumuamua
scientificamerican.com/article
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.

*Neolithic
phys.org/news/2020-05-heighten
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

_________

*North Magnetic Pole
phys.org/news/2020-05-explanat
sci-hub.se/https://www.nature.

Black hole
theverge.com/2020/5/6/21249111
aanda.org/articles/aa/full_htm

*'Oumuamua
independent.co.uk/life-style/g
news.mit.edu/2020/catch-inters

*Wet-bulb temperatures
research.noaa.gov/News/ArtMID/
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

Thunderspy
wired.com/story/thunderspy-thu
thunderspy.io/

*Orbitronics
phys.org/news/2020-05-scientis
journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/

+*Arthropod
phys.org/news/2020-05-world-ol
tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.10

Mass extinction
nytimes.com/2020/06/10/science
pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/g

*Neanderthals
phys.org/news/2020-05-supercom
sciencedirect.com/science/arti

*Extraterrestrial life
phys.org/news/2020-05-odds-lif
pnas.org/content/117/22/11995

*South Atlantic Anomaly
independent.co.uk/life-style/g
esa.int/Applications/Observing

*Early galaxy
nytimes.com/2020/05/20/science
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

*Neanderthal-haplotypes
phys.org/news/2020-05-women-ne
academic.oup.com/mbe/advance-a

Internet speed
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

*Proxima Centauri b
phys.org/news/2020-05-espresso
arxiv.org/abs/2005.12114v1

Fast Blue Optical Transient
phys.org/news/2020-05-astrophy
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.

+*Space debris
phys.org/news/2020-05-space-ju
pnas.org/content/117/23/12756

SpaceX
nytimes.com/2020/05/30/science

------------------ Not included ------------------

- A brown bear sighting in Spain's Invernadeiro national park is reported for the first time in 150 years

- A maiden flight of China's most powerful rocket to date, the Long March 5B, occurs

- *Proof-of-concept of a quantum radar developed

- *A Seyfert flare 3.5 million years ago with a burst of ionizing radiation from Sagittarius A* created the large X-ray/gamma-ray Fermi Bubbles around the galactic center and reached so far into space that it illuminated the Magellanic Stream – a stream of gas extending from two of the Milky Way's satellite galaxies.

- *Genomic analysis shows that mainland East Asians have a closer genetic relationship to northern Neolithic East Asians instead of southern ones and that migration and gene flow played important roles during the Neolithic Revolution

- *Researchers claim to have developed a low-noise silicon single-photon source compatible with large-scale quantum photonics

- *Researchers project a net increase in the extent and biomass of green snow algae with coastal Antarctica turning more green due to climate change

- *Genome-wide data of 19 Siberians of the Upper Paleolithic to Bronze Age of up to ca. 14,000 years ago show the most deeply divergent connection between Upper Paleolithic Siberians and the indigenous peoples of the Americas and that long-range human mobility across Eurasia during the Early Bronze Age as well as prolonged local admixture that lead to an ancestry that gave rise to all non-Arctic Native Americans.

- One-minute novel coronavirus test with 90% accuracy developed

- *Evidence for the early differentiation of the cline of Italian variation dating back to the Late Glacial and for Neolithic and distinct Bronze Age migrations having further differentiated their gene pools. Ancestors of present-day Italians are believed to have experienced an extraordinary history of migrations and gene flow as main factors underlying their genetic diversity which is one of the highest across Europe

- *Comet ATLAS reaches its nearest point to Earth. The Solar Orbiter spacecraft flies through comet ATLAS' ion tail between May 31 and June 1 as well as its dust tail in the solar wind on June 6.

- Sensor only 11 atoms in size, able to capture spin waves developed

- Chicxulub impactor produced a "worst case" scenario in terms of lethality for the dinosaurs, arriving from the north-east at a 60° angle, which maximised the amount of gases and debris thrown up into Earth's atmosphere

- Novae - likely created in a close binary star system consisting of a white dwarf and either a main sequence, subgiant, or red giant star - are the galactic producers of the element lithium

- *Social networks can function poorly as pathways for inconvenient truths and the interplay between communication and action during disasters may depend on the structure of social networks

Science Summary for last month

Lots of astonishing papers were published in April. Sources below.

Monthly newsletter: mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

#2020 -review

----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

Items which I added to the Wikipedia list are marked with a star.
Some more relevant information can be found on the list's talk page.

------------------ Sources ------------------

Marine life*
bbc.com/news/science-environme
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Homo erectus
nytimes.com/2020/04/02/science
science.sciencemag.org/content

Coral bleaching*
forbes.com/sites/tamarathiesse
coralcoe.org.au/media-releases

Expansion*
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020

SARS-CoV-2
Glycans*
phys.org/news/2020-04-scientis
biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/20
Novel coronaviruses*
phys.org/news/2020-04-scientis
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/
Reinfections
reuters.com/article/us-health-
Strains*
scmp.com/news/china/science/ar
medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/20
Strain identification*
phys.org/news/2020-04-genetic-
biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/20
Testing device*
phys.org/news/2020-04-inexpens
pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articl
Genomic signature*
phys.org/news/2020-04-covid-ge
journals.plos.org/plosone/arti

Memristor*
phys.org/news/2020-04-unveil-e
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

Fine-structure constant*
phys.org/news/2020-04-laws-nat
Note: it should say quasar, not quasars
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

Glowing plants*
edition.cnn.com/2020/04/27/wor
nature.com/articles/s41587-020

_________

Microbes
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
nature.com/articles/s42003-020

Virus genes*
phys.org/news/2020-04-viruses-
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/

Animal*
nytimes.com/2020/04/14/science
twitter.com/SchmidtOcean/statu

Neanderthals
nytimes.com/2020/04/09/science
Note: 50,000 - not 50.000
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/

Atlantic*
phys.org/news/2020-04-ancient-
science.sciencemag.org/content

X-ray device*
physicsworld.com/a/thin-film-p
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

ʻOumuamua
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
nature.com/articles/s41550-020

Supernova
phys.org/news/2020-04-scientis
nature.com/articles/s41550-020

Methane emissions*
reuters.com/article/usa-methan
pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.e

Anoxia*
independent.co.uk/news/science
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

Wolfram Physics Project*
phys.org/news/2020-04-wolfram-
writings.stephenwolfram.com/20

Exoplanet
edition.cnn.com/2020/04/15/wor
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.

Quantum processor*
newscientist.com/article/22405
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Greenland ice melting*
in.reuters.com/article/us-clim
the-cryosphere.net/14/1209/202

Bacteriocin*
phys.org/news/2020-04-bacteric
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Face masks*
brisbanetimes.com.au/national/
qut.edu.au/news?id=161468

R&D program*
theguardian.com/environment/20
minister.awe.gov.au/ley/media-

Pheromones*
edition.cnn.com/2020/04/16/afr
cell.com/current-biology/fullt

Local food crops*
phys.org/news/2020-04-local-fo
nature.com/articles/s43016-020

Arctic*
phys.org/news/2020-04-north-po
agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.co

Borisov*
newscientist.com/article/22409
nature.com/articles/s41550-020
nature.com/articles/s41550-020

Cognition*
nature.com/articles/d41586-020
agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.co

Collective memory*
phys.org/news/2020-04-microbes
cell.com/cell-systems/pdf/S240

FRB
sciencealert.com/a-galactic-ma
astronomerstelegram.org/?read=
astronomerstelegram.org/?read=

ATLAS
phys.org/news/2020-04-hubble-c
nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/

------------------ Not included ------------------

- *Traces of rainforest discovered on Antarctica indicate a CO2 level higher than expected 115-80 million years ago
- *Stretching cells alone can activate genes without intermediates, enzymes or signaling molecules in the cell being necessary; tests with forces common in activities like breathing
- *Genetic information retrieved from the fossils of H. antecessor ~800,000 y.o. and Homo erectus 1.77 million y.o. via proteomes; H. antecessor is a closely related sister-lineage to subsequent hominins incl. modern humans and Neanderthals
- Report on vaccine candidate PittCoVacc
- Report on a trial drug that can substantially block early stages of the COVID-19 disease in engineered human tissues
- Further data on fragmentation of interstellar comet 2I/Borisov
- Astronomers report possible disintegration of comet ATLAS
- *Mini ozone hole discovered over the Arctic; like due to unusual atmospheric conditions, incl. freezing temperatures in the stratosphere
- *Study with first photograph of a relativistic jet from an ongoing galaxy merger; young jet pointed near Earth emerges from from one of the two galaxies active galactic nuclei and proves that such merge events can trigger such jets
- *Highest resolution images of Sun's coronal loops published
- *Microbes can actively colonize high-pH environments of radioactive waste storage sites; implications for the safety of such sites and the knowledge about extremophile microbial life
- First direct measurement of winds on a brown dwarf star
- *Wireless control of adrenal hormone secretion in genetically unmodified rats through the use of injectable, magnetic, heatable nanoparticles
- According to US government SARS-CoV-2 may have accidentally come from a Wuhan laboratory; no data or proof provided
- *Predictive algorithm can show visualizations how combinations of genetic mutations can make proteins highly effective or ineffective developed; incl. for viral evolution
- *Rashba effect proven perovskites
- *The 2000–2018 Southwestern North American drought was second driest 19-year period since 800 CE, exceeded only by a late-1500s megadrought
- *Origin of shark fins of endangered hammerhead sharks from a retail market in Hong Kong back to the location where the sharks were first caught using DNA analysis
- New approach to fabricate metallic polymers with atomic precision
- *Researchers demonstrate a method to direct self-assembly – in terms of size, position and geometry – of a multitude of materials made out of components of more than four orders of magnitude different in size and mass using femtosecond laser pulses
- *Eurasian ice sheet collapse was a major source meltwater pulse 1A sea level rise 14,600 years ago, causing up to half of the ca. 16 meter rise
- *Perovskite electrochemical cells which can efficiently convert electricity and water into hydrogen and back developed
- Microplastic pollution is recorded in Antarctic sea ice for the first time
- *Extreme rainfall can trigger volcanic eruptions
- *Ferroelectricity in a material structure with functional features down to a thickness of one nanometre discovered; candidate for e.g. powering very small devices
- *Mass DNA analysis of over 27,000 Icelanders shows that the Neanderthal population that mixed with modern Icelanders was more similar to a Neanderthal found in Croatia than to Neanderthals found in Russia, that Icelanders carry traces of Denisovan DNA, that on average these Neanderthal children had older mothers and younger fathers compared to modern humans and that Neanderthal DNA has a relatively minor effect on human health and appearance today
- *Oil and gas operations in the United States' Permian Basin are releasing methane at twice the average rate found in earlier studies of 11 other major oil and gas regions of the United States
- NASA built a successful COVID-19 ventilator; received FDA fast-track approval for emergency use in late April
- Nitrogen-bearing organics discovered in Allan Hills 84001, a Martian meteorite found on Earth
- *Improper fit of a face mask can decrease the filtration efficiency by over 60%; filtration efficiencies of hybrid homemade face mask such as cotton–chiffon are larger than single-layer homemade masks
- Astronomers describe a way of detecting exoplanetary life using oxygen on water worlds
- *Researchers publish an analysis of the growth of confirmed infected COVID-19 cases in 9 countries which characterizes the spread and identifies efficient flatten the curve-strategies
- New study of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus claims to have found the first unambiguous evidence for an aquatic propulsive structure in a non-avian dinosaur
- Melting in Antarctica and Greenland has contributed 14 mm of global sea level rise since 2003
- NASA selects three U.S. companies to design and develop human landing systems for the agency's Artemis program, one of which is planned to deliver the first woman and next man on the Moon by 2024.
- *One of the climate models – the CMIP6 model CESM2 – is not supported by paleoclimate records; comparing simulations of this model with geological evidence suggests that it's climate sensitivity is too high; it overestimated global warming at high levels of CO2 where its equilibrium climate sensitivity is 5.3 °C and tropical land temperature exceed 55°C
- *Astronomers publish 15 images of proto-planetary disks believed to undergo planet formation

Science Summary for last month

Lots of astonishing papers were published in April. Sources below.

Monthly newsletter: mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/scienc

#2020 -review

----------------- Selection -----------------

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_

Items which I added to the Wikipedia list are marked with a star.
Some more relevant information can be found on the list's talk page.

------------------ Sources ------------------

Marine life*
bbc.com/news/science-environme
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Homo erectus
nytimes.com/2020/04/02/science
science.sciencemag.org/content

Coral bleaching*
forbes.com/sites/tamarathiesse
coralcoe.org.au/media-releases

Expansion*
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020

SARS-CoV-2
Glycans*
phys.org/news/2020-04-scientis
biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/20
Novel coronaviruses*
phys.org/news/2020-04-scientis
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/
Reinfections
reuters.com/article/us-health-
Strains*
scmp.com/news/china/science/ar
medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/20
Strain identification*
phys.org/news/2020-04-genetic-
biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/20
Testing device*
phys.org/news/2020-04-inexpens
pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articl
Genomic signature*
phys.org/news/2020-04-covid-ge
journals.plos.org/plosone/arti

Memristor*
phys.org/news/2020-04-unveil-e
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

Fine-structure constant*
phys.org/news/2020-04-laws-nat
Note: it should say quasar, not quasars
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

Glowing plants*
edition.cnn.com/2020/04/27/wor
nature.com/articles/s41587-020

_________

Microbes
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
nature.com/articles/s42003-020

Virus genes*
phys.org/news/2020-04-viruses-
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/

Animal*
nytimes.com/2020/04/14/science
twitter.com/SchmidtOcean/statu

Neanderthals
nytimes.com/2020/04/09/science
Note: 50,000 - not 50.000
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/

Atlantic*
phys.org/news/2020-04-ancient-
science.sciencemag.org/content

X-ray device*
physicsworld.com/a/thin-film-p
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

ʻOumuamua
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
nature.com/articles/s41550-020

Supernova
phys.org/news/2020-04-scientis
nature.com/articles/s41550-020

Methane emissions*
reuters.com/article/usa-methan
pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.e

Anoxia*
independent.co.uk/news/science
nature.com/articles/s41467-020

Wolfram Physics Project*
phys.org/news/2020-04-wolfram-
writings.stephenwolfram.com/20

Exoplanet
edition.cnn.com/2020/04/15/wor
iopscience.iop.org/article/10.

Quantum processor*
newscientist.com/article/22405
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Greenland ice melting*
in.reuters.com/article/us-clim
the-cryosphere.net/14/1209/202

Bacteriocin*
phys.org/news/2020-04-bacteric
nature.com/articles/s41586-020

Face masks*
brisbanetimes.com.au/national/
qut.edu.au/news?id=161468

R&D program*
theguardian.com/environment/20
minister.awe.gov.au/ley/media-

Pheromones*
edition.cnn.com/2020/04/16/afr
cell.com/current-biology/fullt

Local food crops*
phys.org/news/2020-04-local-fo
nature.com/articles/s43016-020

Arctic*
phys.org/news/2020-04-north-po
agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.co

Borisov*
newscientist.com/article/22409
nature.com/articles/s41550-020
nature.com/articles/s41550-020

Cognition*
nature.com/articles/d41586-020
agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.co

Collective memory*
phys.org/news/2020-04-microbes
cell.com/cell-systems/pdf/S240

FRB
sciencealert.com/a-galactic-ma
astronomerstelegram.org/?read=
astronomerstelegram.org/?read=

ATLAS
phys.org/news/2020-04-hubble-c
nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/

------------------ Not included ------------------

- *Traces of rainforest discovered on Antarctica indicate a CO2 level higher than expected 115-80 million years ago
- *Stretching cells alone can activate genes without intermediates, enzymes or signaling molecules in the cell being necessary; tests with forces common in activities like breathing
- *Genetic information retrieved from the fossils of H. antecessor ~800,000 y.o. and Homo erectus 1.77 million y.o. via proteomes; H. antecessor is a closely related sister-lineage to subsequent hominins incl. modern humans and Neanderthals
- Report on vaccine candidate PittCoVacc
- Report on a trial drug that can substantially block early stages of the COVID-19 disease in engineered human tissues
- Further data on fragmentation of interstellar comet 2I/Borisov
- Astronomers report possible disintegration of comet ATLAS
- *Mini ozone hole discovered over the Arctic; like due to unusual atmospheric conditions, incl. freezing temperatures in the stratosphere
- *Study with first photograph of a relativistic jet from an ongoing galaxy merger; young jet pointed near Earth emerges from from one of the two galaxies active galactic nuclei and proves that such merge events can trigger such jets
- *Highest resolution images of Sun's coronal loops published
- *Microbes can actively colonize high-pH environments of radioactive waste storage sites; implications for the safety of such sites and the knowledge about extremophile microbial life
- First direct measurement of winds on a brown dwarf star
- *Wireless control of adrenal hormone secretion in genetically unmodified rats through the use of injectable, magnetic, heatable nanoparticles
- According to US government SARS-CoV-2 may have accidentally come from a Wuhan laboratory; no data or proof provided
- *Predictive algorithm can show visualizations how combinations of genetic mutations can make proteins highly effective or ineffective developed; incl. for viral evolution
- *Rashba effect proven perovskites
- *The 2000–2018 Southwestern North American drought was second driest 19-year period since 800 CE, exceeded only by a late-1500s megadrought
- *Origin of shark fins of endangered hammerhead sharks from a retail market in Hong Kong back to the location where the sharks were first caught using DNA analysis
- New approach to fabricate metallic polymers with atomic precision
- *Researchers demonstrate a method to direct self-assembly – in terms of size, position and geometry – of a multitude of materials made out of components of more than four orders of magnitude different in size and mass using femtosecond laser pulses
- *Eurasian ice sheet collapse was a major source meltwater pulse 1A sea level rise 14,600 years ago, causing up to half of the ca. 16 meter rise
- *Perovskite electrochemical cells which can efficiently convert electricity and water into hydrogen and back developed
- Microplastic pollution is recorded in Antarctic sea ice for the first time
- *Extreme rainfall can trigger volcanic eruptions
- *Ferroelectricity in a material structure with functional features down to a thickness of one nanometre discovered; candidate for e.g. powering very small devices
- *Mass DNA analysis of over 27,000 Icelanders shows that the Neanderthal population that mixed with modern Icelanders was more similar to a Neanderthal found in Croatia than to Neanderthals found in Russia, that Icelanders carry traces of Denisovan DNA, that on average these Neanderthal children had older mothers and younger fathers compared to modern humans and that Neanderthal DNA has a relatively minor effect on human health and appearance today
- *Oil and gas operations in the United States' Permian Basin are releasing methane at twice the average rate found in earlier studies of 11 other major oil and gas regions of the United States
- NASA built a successful COVID-19 ventilator; received FDA fast-track approval for emergency use in late April
- Nitrogen-bearing organics discovered in Allan Hills 84001, a Martian meteorite found on Earth
- *Improper fit of a face mask can decrease the filtration efficiency by over 60%; filtration efficiencies of hybrid homemade face mask such as cotton–chiffon are larger than single-layer homemade masks
- Astronomers describe a way of detecting exoplanetary life using oxygen on water worlds
- *Researchers publish an analysis of the growth of confirmed infected COVID-19 cases in 9 countries which characterizes the spread and identifies efficient flatten the curve-strategies
- New study of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus claims to have found the first unambiguous evidence for an aquatic propulsive structure in a non-avian dinosaur
- Melting in Antarctica and Greenland has contributed 14 mm of global sea level rise since 2003
- NASA selects three U.S. companies to design and develop human landing systems for the agency's Artemis program, one of which is planned to deliver the first woman and next man on the Moon by 2024.
- *One of the climate models – the CMIP6 model CESM2 – is not supported by paleoclimate records; comparing simulations of this model with geological evidence suggests that it's climate sensitivity is too high; it overestimated global warming at high levels of CO2 where its equilibrium climate sensitivity is 5.3 °C and tropical land temperature exceed 55°C
- *Astronomers publish 15 images of proto-planetary disks believed to undergo planet formation

Summary for October - easily catch up on last month's new scientific achievements and updated knowledge

Selection is via: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019_in_

_________

SOURCES:
(sorted chronologically, studies at bottom)
reddit.com/dqrpma

Water bear resilience
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20)
elifesciences.org/articles/476

Robotic hand
washingtonpost.com/technology/
d4mucfpksywv.cloudfront.net/pa)

Nano probes
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

Prime-Editing
scientificamerican.com/article
nature.com/articles/s41586-019

acidification
theguardian.com/environment/20
pnas.org/content/early/2019/10

Ice age impact
edition.cnn.com/2019/10/29/wor
nature.com/articles/s41598-019

Quantum supremacy
washingtonpost.com/science/201
nature.com/articles/s41586-019

Sea level rise
nytimes.com/interactive/2019/1
nature.com/articles/s41467-019

Insect decline
upi.com/Science_News/2019/10/3
nature.com/articles/s41586-019

_________


phys.org/news/2019-10-scientis
nature.com/articles/s41561-019

moons
edition.cnn.com/2019/10/07/wor
carnegiescience.edu/news/satur

Cartilage-repair
edition.cnn.com/2019/10/10/hea
advances.sciencemag.org/conten

Brain activity-lifespan
newatlas.com/medical/landmark-
nature.com/articles/s41586-019

: large
sciencedaily.com/releases/2019
science.sciencemag.org/content
3D printer: small
phys.org/news/2019-10-d-techni
science.sciencemag.org/content

Plutonium
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
esrf.eu/home/news/general/cont

CO2-filtering battery-device
sciencedaily.com/releases/2019
pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articl


edition.cnn.com/2019/10/28/wor
nature.com/articles/s41550-019


newscientist.com/article/22217
arxiv.org/abs/1910.12785

Solar cell film
phys.org/news/2019-10-nanotech
pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articl

_________

Not included:
New details on ancient salty lake on Mars from rover Curiosity; origin of modern humans traced to Botswana, Southern-Africa (however "You can't use modern mitochondrial distributions on their own to reconstruct a single location feor modern human origins")

_________

Summary for

Next one in about a week.

Selection via:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019_in_

_____

Sources (studies at bottom):

* AI drug discovery
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20)
nature.com/articles/s41587-019

* Borisov
newatlas.com/space/second-inte
technologyreview.com/f/614452/
minorplanetcenter.net/mpec/K19
arxiv.org/abs/1909.12144

* RNA-DNA hybrids
sciencedaily.com/releases/2019
nature.com/articles/s41557-019

* CRISPR vs antimicrobial resistance
sciencedaily.com/releases/2019
biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/67

* Senolytics
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
ebiomedicine.com/article/S2352

* Cement
phys.org/news/2019-09-approach
pnas.org/content/early/2019/09

* IPCC report
theguardian.com/environment/20
ipcc.ch/srocc/home/

* Metamaterial
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.

* Longevity combination
phys.org/news/2019-09-fruit-fl
pnas.org/content/early/2019/09

* Exploit
arstechnica.com/information-te
github.com/rapid7/metasploit-f

* Proton radius
quantamagazine.org/physicists-
nature.com/articles/nature0925

* Chandrayaan-2
bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-indi

* Water on K2-18b
blogs.scientificamerican.com/o
nature.com/articles/s41550-019

* Shared Control
sciencedaily.com/releases/2019
actu.epfl.ch/news/a-smart-arti

* TMS vs Alzheimer's
eurekalert.org/pub_releases/20
content.iospress.com/articles/

* Denisovans
nationalgeographic.com/science
cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8

* Mars
nationalgeographic.com/science

* Iceberg
bbc.co.uk/news/science-environ

Not included from the list (10 tiles):
Dimmings of Tabby's Star might be due to fragments of its exomoon, mathematical problem of sum of three cubes for numbers under 100 solved, virtual reconstruction of a skull of potentially last common ancestor of modern humans and new hypothesis on origin populations, Google claims to be able to detect 26 skin diseases via AI, neutron star pulsar with almost maximum possible mass (otherwise it would become a black hole) detected (2.17 solar masses with a 30 km diameter), biotechnology company develops a drug candidate for a small fraction of people with Wilson's disease using AI


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