"We document phases of instability and cooling from ~100 CE onward but more notably after ~130 CE. Pronounced cold phases between ~160 to 180 CE, ~245 to 275 CE, and after ~530 CE associate with pandemic disease, suggesting that climate stress interacted with social and biological variables."

Karin A. F. Zonneveld et al., Climate change, society, and pandemic disease in Roman Italy between 200 BCE and 600 CE. Sci. Adv.10, eadk1033 (2024). DOI: @science @biology

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