"The modus operandi of men like Hawkins was to sail to Guinea, acquire a cargo of enslaved people, by force and/or barter, and ship them to the Spanish Caribbean and Mexico.91 Here, Hawkins would claim inclement weather had forced him to the area (a tactic used by many illicit traders), offer platitudes to local officials and sometimes promise to help clear out foreign pirates from the area.92 In return, he asked the Spanish to purchase his enslaved people. If that failed, he became aggressive, after which the local elites, often under-manned and in relatively lightly defended settlements, would agree to purchase his human cargo."

Gary Paul Baker, Craig Lambert, ‘William Fowler’, Sir William Garrard, Sir John Hawkins and the Sixteenth-Century Atlantic Slave Trade, The English Historical Review, 2024;, cead213, @histodon @histodons @earlymodern

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