As a novelist, her most noted work was Pinjar ("The Skeleton", 1950), in which she created her memorable character, Puro, an epitome of violence against women, loss of humanity and ultimate surrender to existential fate; the novel was made into an award-winning film, Pinjar (2003).[4][5]
It is the story of a Hindu girl, Puro, abducted by a Muslim man, Rashid;[2] Puro's parents refuse to accept the defiled girl when she manages to escape from Rashid's home. Pinjar is widely considered one of the outstanding works of Indian fiction set during the period of the Partition of India.
A Pakistani television series based on the novel titled Ghughi premiered on 25 January 2018 on TVOne Pakistan.[4]
Ghughi (Urdu: گُھگِھی, lit. 'Dove') is a 2018 Pakistani drama serial based on Amrita Pritam's 1950 novel Pinjar.[2] This drama is directed by Iqbal Hussain, written by Amna Mufti and produced by Cereal Entertainment. It originally aired on TV One Pakistan.[3][4] It stars Adnan Siddiqui as Rasheed and Amar Khan as Nirmala in lead roles.[5]

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वन्दे मातरम्।
सुजलाम् सुफलाम्
शस्यश्यामलाम् मातरम्।
वन्दे मातरम्।

सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदाम् वरदाम्
वन्दे मातरम्।

The 'Virgin Rainbow' is one of the world's rarest and most expensive opals and it literally glows in the dark [read more:]

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, also known as Basadi Betta, is a beautiful, round hillock housing a number of temples that are ~ 1000 years old. It is an important pilgrimage centre for Jains in .


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Fourier Art is a form of computer art created by using Fourier series.

Fourier series are used to define curves and surfaces in a parametric form by expressing the coordinates of the points with different series.

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Hot qubits break one of the biggest constraints to practical quantum computers

Most quantum computers being developed around the world will only work at fractions of a degree above absolute zero. That requires multi-million-dollar refrigeration and as soon as you plug them into conventional electronic circuits they'll instantly overheat.

🔸 The central nervous system has to go from the caudal end of the spinal cord all the way to the front of the brain.

🔸 The neural plate is making the neural tube. And the central portion of the neuroectoderm folds up, and then it folds and closes and becomes a tube.

🔸 Neural tube is going to become central nervous system. Neural crest is going to become peripheral nervous system plus a lot of other stuff like melanocytes.

🔸 By the end of day 21 of gestation, we already have an invagination; and by the end of the fourth week, we're going to have a tube that stretches from one end to the other.

🔸 And the way this works is that the flat plate of neuroectoderm, invaginates — it folds in. It is called 'neural fold' or 'neural groove'.

🔸 And then that increases until you have almost a tube — people will call this an omega shape — and then that does in fact become a tube.

🔸 After the tube forms, other tissues have to come in and cover the nervous system — that's important. We don't want our nervous system to be exposed. This whole process takes a week.

🔸 And around the region where the neck of the adult will be, the neural tube first closes up.

🔸 There's one last opening where they meet. And that's called a neuropore.

🖼️ Images from: Screengrab at and

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🔸 While the sympathetic nervous system is entirely contained within the thoracic cord (all the preganglionic neurons are in the thoracic cord), the parasympathetic preganglionics are split between the brain stem and the sacral cord.

🔸 And this has one very important consequence — for virtually any spinal cord injury, it doesn't matter where, any lesion that is anywhere near complete is going to isolate the sacral cord.

🔸 Now, the sacral cord does not make decisions. The spinal cord does not make decisions. It depends on input from the brain.

🔸 So, for example when an individual wants to wants to void urine, there is a whole part of front, pre-frontal cortex which decides micturation to occur.

🔸 The sacral cord is responsible for executing micturation, but it's not responsible for making the decision.

🔸 So, if we have a lesion somewhere in the chord that's rostral (towards the brain) from sacral cord, the sacral cord no longer has instructions from the brain.

🔸 Under normal circumstances micturition depends on two things:
1️⃣ The bladder, which is a smooth muscle, is contracted And it's contracted by neurons in the sacral cord, which is a parasympathetic effect. Parasympathetic neuron contacts a ganglionic neuron in the wall of the bladder, and that ends up contracting the the bladder wall.
2️⃣ In addition there's an external urethral sphincter that has to relax in order to let the urine out. And that is a voluntary muscle that your brain controls.

🔸 Now, in the case of a spinal cord injury, the sacral cord is on its own. So, as the bladder fills up, it starts to contract. It will contract. But this will never relax.

🔸 And so, what you have is the bladder contracting against a fixed, tight, closed sphincter. This is called "bladder dyssynergia". And it is a huge problem in spinal cord injury.

🔸 If somebody suffers from a spinal cord injury, a physician is going to make sure, is going to test, whether, the person is able to void urine or not. And if they're not, they're going to need medical intervention immediately.

👁️ Up in the most rostral part of the thoracic column that provides pregangloinics to the sympathetics, our preganglionics go to the eye. They go to the pupil they go to a few other places, but they also go to this eyelid.

👁️ The eyelid has two different muscles in it.
It has a muscle which is called "levator palpebrae", which is innervated, is a skeletal muscle and is voluntarily controlled; so, it has a voluntary muscle.
And it has a muscle in the back which is called the "superior tarsus", and the superior tarsus is a smooth muscle.

👁️ So, the superior tarsus is innervated by the sympathetics. And so, when you're asleep, having very low sympathetic tone — your eye closes.

👁️ When you wake up, sympathetic tone automatically comes up to some minimum, including a contraction of the superior tarsus, and up comes your eyelid.

🖼️ Image source: screen-grab from

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🔴 Autonomic Pharmacology: Adjusting the PS/S System

🔸 Instead of as in the skeletal motor system where there's one motor neuron that goes and enervates a skeletal muscle, autonomic systems get to the target by two neurons.

🔸 The first neuron sits in the central nervous system. We call it the preganglionic motor neuron, and it contacts a motor neuron that sits in an autonomic ganglion.
And in both the case of the parasymptathetic preganglionic and the sympathetic preganglionic — they're both using acetylcholine.

🔸 So, all motor neurons use acetylcholine. And all motor neurons going to the post-synaptic target — whether it's the skeletal muscle or whether it's a ganglion cell — is going to express a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This is a fast ionotropic receptor — it's going to very instantly give a response.

🔸 The sympathetic preganglionic neuron goes to a ganglionic neuron which expresses this nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

🔸 The parasympathetic preganglionic also goes to a ganglionic neuron that expresses a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. And there, the two systems diverge.

🔸 In the parasympathetic system, we stay with acetylcholine as our neurotransmitter. The ganglionic neuron sends a post-ganglionic axon, which is an unmyelinated axon that goes to one of the three targets — smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or gland. And it is going to release acetylcholine.

🔸 There's a difference between the release of acetylcholine at the terminal of ganglionic neuron and the release of acetylcholine at the terminal of post-ganglionic axon.
And the difference is that the targets (e.g.: smooth muscle) are always expressing as metabotropic (very slow) indirect receptors.

🔸 They're acetylcholine receptors, but they're muscarinic, as opposed to nicotinic.
Each of these targets is going to express a different muscarinic receptor. The effect is that the transmission is slow.

🔸 Now, in the sympathetic system, once we get to the ganglion, we switch to norepinephrine (NE).

🔸 So, norepinephrine is contained in the ganglionic neurons, and they send an axon, and again, an unmyelinated post-ganglionic axon that enervates one of the three targets — smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or gland.

🔸 These receptors that receive the message of norepinephrine are also metabotropic, and so therefore, they are also slow.

🖼️ Image source: Screen grab from

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