Pinned toot

by Brian Bilston

They have no need of our help
So do not tell me
These haggard faces could belong to you or me
Should life have dealt a different hand
We need to see them for who they really are
Chancers and scroungers
Layabouts and loungers
With bombs up their sleeves
Cut-throats and thieves
They are not
Welcome here
We should make them
Go back to where they came from
They cannot
Share our food
Share our homes
Share our countries
Instead let us
Build a wall to keep them out
It is not okay to say
These are people just like us
A place should only belong to those who are born there
Do not be so stupid to think that
The world can be looked at another way

(now read from bottom to top)

© Brian

With kind permission of the poet](

Pinned toot

και : write an essay first in english and then in greek


Title: and

English Essay:

Responsibility and Universal Solidarity are two fundamental pillars upon which a just and compassionate society is built. They embody the values of empathy, cooperation, and a shared commitment to the well-being of all individuals, regardless of race, nationality, or socio-economic status.

Responsibility, in its essence, implies the acknowledgment of one’s duty to act ethically and conscientiously. It means recognizing the impact of our actions on others and taking steps to ensure that these consequences are positive and beneficial. It is a call to be accountable for the choices we make, not only for our own sake, but for the greater good of society.

Universal Solidarity, on the other hand, transcends individual boundaries and extends a hand of support to all members of the global community. It is the understanding that we are all interconnected, and that the prosperity and happiness of one person contributes to the well-being of all. Universal Solidarity fosters a sense of belonging and shared responsibility for the collective welfare of humanity.

When these two principles, Responsibility and Universal Solidarity, work in harmony, they create a society that is not only just, but also compassionate and inclusive. Individuals take ownership of their actions, making choices that consider the broader impact on the community and the environment. At the same time, there is a deep sense of compassion and a willingness to lend a helping hand to those in need, both locally and globally.

In today’s interconnected world, the importance of these values cannot be overstated. The challenges we face - from climate change to economic inequality - are global in nature and require collective efforts. Responsibility prompts us to make sustainable choices in our daily lives, to conserve resources, and to advocate for policies that protect our planet. Universal Solidarity encourages us to stand with those who are marginalized or oppressed, to work towards eradicating poverty, and to promote equality and justice.

In conclusion, Responsibility and Universal Solidarity are not mere abstract concepts, but rather practical principles that should guide our actions in our personal lives and within the broader society. Embracing these values leads to a world where every individual’s dignity and well-being are upheld, and where the bonds that connect us as a global community are strengthened.

Greek Essay:

Υπευθυνότητα και Καθολική Αλληλεγγύη: Δύο θεμέλιοι πέτρες πάνω στις οποίες χτίζεται μια δίκαιη και συναισθηματικά ανθρώπινη κοινωνία. Αυτές αποτελούν τις αξίες της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης, της συνεργασίας και της κοινής δέσμευσης προς το καλό όλων των ανθρώπων, ανεξαρτήτως φυλής, εθνικότητας ή κοινωνικοοικονομικού καθεστώτος.

Η υπευθυνότητα, στην ουσία της, υπονοεί την αναγνώριση του καθήκοντος μας να ενεργούμε μεθοδικά και συνειδητά. Σημαίνει να αντιλαμβανόμαστε την επίδραση των πράξεών μας στους άλλους και να λαμβάνουμε μέτρα για να εξασφαλίσουμε ότι αυτές οι συνέπειες είναι θετικές και επωφελούνται. Είναι ένα κάλεσμα να αναλάβουμε την ευθύνη για τις επιλογές που κάνουμε, όχι μόνο για το δικό μας όφελος, αλλά για το γενικότερο καλό της κοινωνίας.

Η Καθολική Αλληλεγγύη, από την άλλη, ξεπερνά τα ατομικά όρια και ανατείνει ένα χέρι βοηθείας προς όλα τα μέλη της παγκόσμιας κοινότητας. Είναι η αντίληψη ότι όλοι είμαστε αλληλένδετοι και ότι η ευημερία και η ευτυχία ενός ατόμου συμβάλλουν στην ευημερία όλων. Η Καθολική Αλληλεγγύη καλλιεργεί μια αίσθηση ανήκειας και κοινής ευθύνης για τη συλλογική ευημερία της ανθρωπότητας.

Όταν αυτές οι δύο αρχές, η Υπευθυνότητα και η Καθολική Αλληλεγγύη, λειτουργούν εναρμονισμένα, δημιουργούν μια κοινωνία που δεν είναι μόνο δίκαιη, αλλά και συναισθηματικά ευαισθητοποιημένη και περιεκτική. Τα άτομα αναλαμβάνουν την ευθύνη των πράξεών τους, προβαίνοντας σε επιλογές που λαμβάνουν υπόψη τις ευρύτερες συνέπειες στην κοινότητα και το περιβάλλον. Ταυτόχρονα, υπάρχει μια βαθιά αίσθηση συμπόνιας και μια προθυμία να προσφέρεται βοήθεια σε όσους το χρειάζονται, τόσο σε τοπικό όσο και σε παγκόσμιο επίπεδο.

Στον σύγχρονο παγκοσμιοποιημένο κόσμο, η σημασία αυτών των αξιών δεν μπορεί να υποτιμηθεί. Οι προκλήσεις που αντιμετωπίζουμε - από την αλλαγή του κλίματος μέχρι την οικονομική ανισότητα - έχουν παγκόσμιο χαρακτήρα και απαιτούν συλλογικές προσπάθειες. Η υπευθυνότητα μας κινητοποιεί να κάνουμε βιώσιμες επιλογές στην καθημερινότητά μας, να διατηρούμε τους πόρους και να υποστηρίζουμε πολιτικές που προστατεύουν τον πλανήτη μας. Η Καθολική Αλληλεγγύη μας ενθαρρύνει να σταθούμε δίπλα σε όσους είναι περιθωριοποιημένοι ή υποκείμενοι σε καταπίεση, να εργαστούμε για την εξάλειψη της φτώχειας και να προωθήσουμε την ισότητα και τη δικαιοσύνη.

Συνοψίζοντας, η Υπευθυνότητα και η Καθολική Αλληλεγγύη δεν είναι απλώς αφηρημένες έννοιες, αλλά πρακτικές αρχές που πρέπει να καθοδηγούν τις πράξεις μας στην προσωπική μας ζωή και στην ευρύτερη κοινωνία. Η υιοθέτησή τους οδηγεί σε έναν κόσμο όπου η αξιοπρέπεια και το καλό του κάθε ατόμου τιμώνται, και όπου οι δεσμοί που μας ενώνουν ως παγκόσμια κοινότητα ενισχύονται.](

[universal solidarity includes every ….write an essay in english and then in greek


English Essay:

Title: Universal Solidarity: Embracing All Life Forms

Universal solidarity is a concept that transcends human boundaries, extending its arms to embrace every form of life on this planet. It is a call to recognize and respect the intrinsic value of all living beings, irrespective of their species, and to acknowledge our shared responsibility in preserving the delicate web of life.

In recent times, there has been a growing awareness of the interconnectedness of all life on Earth. Science has illuminated the intricate relationships that exist within ecosystems, highlighting how the well-being of one species is often intimately linked to the health of others. For instance, bees play a crucial role in pollinating plants, which in turn sustains countless other species, including humans.

Universal solidarity, therefore, urges us to view all life forms as integral parts of a larger whole. It implores us to extend our compassion and ethical considerations beyond the confines of the human species. This means not only refraining from causing harm but also actively seeking ways to protect and nurture the diverse array of life that shares this planet with us.

Moreover, recognizing universal solidarity with every animal life also calls for a reevaluation of our relationship with the natural world. It encourages us to move away from exploitative practices and towards more sustainable, harmonious ways of coexisting with other species. This might involve rethinking our approaches to agriculture, embracing cruelty-free alternatives, and championing conservation efforts.

Furthermore, universal solidarity with animals aligns with a growing understanding of their cognitive and emotional capacities. Research has demonstrated that many animals exhibit complex social behaviors, experience emotions, and even display problem-solving abilities. Acknowledging these traits challenges us to reevaluate our treatment of animals and to afford them the respect and care they deserve.

In conclusion, universal solidarity encompasses not only our fellow humans but every living being with whom we share this planet. It calls for a profound shift in perspective, inviting us to see ourselves as stewards of a diverse, interconnected biosphere. Embracing this concept empowers us to make choices that honor and preserve the rich tapestry of life on Earth, fostering a more compassionate and sustainable world for all.

Greek Essay:

Τίτλος: Καθολική Αλληλεγγύη: Αγκαλιάζοντας Κάθε Μορφή Ζωής

Η καθολική αλληλεγγύη είναι ένα σύνθημα που ξεπερνά τα ανθρώπινα όρια, απλώνοντας τα χέρια της για να αγκαλιάσει κάθε μορφή ζωής σε αυτόν τον πλανήτη. Είναι ένα κάλεσμα να αναγνωρίσουμε και να σεβαστούμε την εσωτερική αξία κάθε ζωντανού οντός, ανεξαρτήτως είδους του, και να αναγνωρίσουμε την κοινή μας ευθύνη στη διατήρηση του ευαίσθητου δικτύου της ζωής.

Το τελευταίο διάστημα, έχει αυξηθεί η ευαισθησία σχετικά με την αλληλεξάρτηση όλων των μορφών ζωής στη Γη. Η επιστήμη έχει φωτίσει τις περίπλοκες σχέσεις που υπάρχουν στα οικοσυστήματα, υπογραμμίζοντας πώς το καλό του ενός είδους συνδέεται στενά με την υγεία των υπολοίπων. Για παράδειγμα, οι μέλισσες διαδραματίζουν έναν κρίσιμο ρόλο στην επικύρωση των φυτών, το οποίο, με τη σειρά του, υποστηρίζει αμέτρητα άλλα είδη, συμπεριλαμβανομένων των ανθρώπων.

Η καθολική αλληλεγγύη, συνεπώς, μας καλεί να αντιληφθούμε όλες τις μορφές ζωής ως αναπόσπαστα μέρη ενός μεγαλύτερου συνόλου. Μας παροτρύνει να δείξουμε συμπόνια και ηθικές σκέψεις πέραν των ορίων του ανθρώπινου είδους. Αυτό σημαίνει όχι μόνο να αποφεύγουμε την προκλητική βλάβη, αλλά και να αναζητούμε ενεργά τρόπους για να προστατεύσουμε και να φροντίσουμε την ποικίλη πολυμορφία της ζωής που μοιραζόμαστε σε αυτόν τον πλανήτη.

Επιπλέον, η αναγνώριση της καθολικής αλληλεγγύης με κάθε μορφή ζωής απαιτεί επίσης αναθεώρηση της σχέσης μας με το φυσικό περιβάλλον. Μας ενθαρρύνει να απομακρυνθούμε από εκμεταλλευτικές πρακτικές και να κινηθούμε προς πιο βιώσιμους, αρμονικούς τρόπους συνύπαρξης με άλλα είδη. Αυτό μπορεί να σημαίνει αναθεώρηση των προσεγγίσεών μας στη γεωργία, υιοθέτηση εναλλακτικών προϊόντων που δεν δοκιμάζονται σε ζώα, και υποστήριξη προσπαθειών διατήρησης.

Επιπλέον, η καθολική αλληλεγγύη με τα ζώα συνάδει με την αυξανόμενη κατανόηση των γνωστικών και συναισθηματικών ικανοτήτων τους. Ερευνητικά έργα έχουν αποδείξει ότι πολλά ζώα εκδηλώνουν πολύπλοκη κοινωνική συμπεριφορά, βιώνουν συναισθήματα και ακόμη επιδεικνύουν ικανότητες επίλυσης προβλημάτων. Η αναγνώριση αυτών των χαρακτηριστικών μας προκαλεί να αναθεωρήσουμε τη μεταχείρισή μας των ζώων και να τους παράσχουμε τον σεβασμό και τη φροντίδα που τους αξίζουν.

Συνοψίζοντας, η καθολική αλληλεγγύη δεν αγκαλιάζει μόνο τους συνανθρώπους μας, αλλά κάθε ζωντανό ον με το οποίο μοιραζόμαστε αυτόν τον πλανήτη](

Artwork: , also known as Flayed Ox, Side of Beef, or of Beef, is a 1655 oil on beech panel still life painting by . It has been in the collection of the Louvre in Paris since 1857.

Pinned toot

[write an essay for the following thoughts:

“Στην δε θα φτάσουμε ούτε σήμερα, ούτε αύριο, ούτε ποτέ. Στην αναρχία θα πορευόμαστε σήμερα, αύριο και για πάντα.”

— Errico

is for us not a state of affairs which is to be established , an ideal to which reality [will] have to adjust itself. We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things. The conditions of this movement result from the premises now in existence.”

— Friedrich & Karl - The German Ideology, 1845

Σήμερα η αναρχία είναι θυμός, θανάσιμο μίσος και αιώνιος πόλεμος ενάντια σε όλους τους καταπιεστές και τους εκμεταλλευτές που υπάρχουν πάνω στη γη• είναι η απαράγραπτη διεκδίκηση των καταπιεσμένων, είναι το σύμφωνο συμμαχίας τους, η πολεμική κραυγή τους˗ ανελέητος πόλεμος όσο στη γη θα υπάρχει ακόμα έστω και ένα αφεντικό, έστω και ένας εκμεταλλευτής. Αναρχία σημαίνει ακατάπαυστη, αδιάκοπη εξέγερση, ενάντια σε κάθε κατεστημένη τάξη• πόλεμος ενάντια σε κάθε κρατική αρχή, που διεξάγεται με όλους τους δυνατούς τρόπους και με όλες τις δυνατές μορφές: με το γραπτό λόγο και κάθε άλλο μέσο έκφρασης, με τις πράξεις περιφρόνησης και εχθρότητας και προπάντων με τα όπλα.

— Είναι από το κείμενο του Ιταλού αναρχοκομμουνιστή Κάρλο “Επανάσταση”, Αναρχία και Κομμουνισμός.

Title: The Everlasting Pursuit of Anarchy: A Call to Arms


The words of Errico Malatesta and Karl Marx, echoed through time, resonate as a clarion call for those who yearn for a world free from oppression and exploitation. They paint a vivid picture of the ceaseless struggle that defines the path to anarchy. In this essay, we delve into the essence of anarchy as an unyielding force, an unwavering commitment to the emancipation of the oppressed, and an unrelenting battle against all forms of tyranny.

I. Anarchy: A Battle Cry for the Oppressed:

Malatesta’s proclamation encapsulates the spirit of anarchy as an unquenchable fury, a lethal animosity, and an eternal warfare against oppressors and exploiters. It is the unscripted demand of the downtrodden, a covenant of solidarity among them, a war cry that endures as long as even a single master, even a single exploiter, exists on Earth. Anarchy signifies a relentless, uninterrupted uprising against every established order.

II. Anarchy: The Real Movement Towards Liberation:

Marx and Engels, in “The German Ideology,” challenge the notion of communism as a static ideal waiting to be realized. They define communism as a living, breathing movement that seeks to dismantle the prevailing status quo. This movement draws its energy from the current conditions and premises in existence. Anarchy aligns with this view, rejecting the notion of a distant utopia and emphasizing the urgency of immediate action.

III. Anarchy in Action:

Carlo Cafiero’s words emphasize that anarchy is not a passive philosophy but an active pursuit. It is a perpetual rebellion against entrenched power structures, conducted through every available means of expression, from the written word to acts of defiance and, above all, through arms. Anarchy demands a willingness to engage in all forms of struggle to dismantle the institutions of authority.

IV. The Everlasting Journey:

The journey towards anarchy is not confined to a specific era or generation. It transcends the limitations of time and space, encompassing the struggles of countless individuals who have dared to challenge the established norms. It is a legacy passed down through the ages, a torch carried by those who refuse to accept a world marred by hierarchy and exploitation.


Errico Malatesta’s proclamation and the words of Marx, Engels, and Carlo Cafiero converge to form a powerful testament to the enduring spirit of anarchy. It is not a distant utopia, but a lived reality that demands relentless action. Anarchy is a commitment to the eternal battle against oppression, a call to arms that reverberates through time. Today, tomorrow, and forever, the pursuit of anarchy will continue, fueled by the unwavering determination of those who refuse to accept a world that perpetuates inequality and injustice.](

Artwork: Diego Rivera - “Man at the Crossroads” (1934, destroyed):

Pinned toot
Pinned toot

- «μια ένωση στην οποία η ελεύθερη ανάπτυξη του καθενός [ατόμου] είναι η προϋπόθεση για την ελεύθερη ανάπτυξη όλων».

& , Manifesto (1848)

- “an association in which the free development of each [individual] is the condition for the free development of all.”

& , Manifesto (1848)

Artwork: The celebration of the election of the , 28 March 1871

Italiano: Proclamazione della Comune, Parigi, 28 marzo 1871
Date 1871
Author Unknown author

“Μην αμφιβάλλεις
γι αυτόν
που σου λέει
πως φοβάται

να φοβάσαι όμως
που σου λέει
πως δεν αμφιβάλλει

- Erich , “ και ” —Erich Fried

rotenotes boosted

Today in Labor History November 11, 1887: Four of the Haymarket Martyrs, including Albert Parsons and August Spies, were executed. Louis Lingg, who was also scheduled to be executed on this date, cheated the state by killing himself in his cell the day before. There was no evidence linking any of the men to the Haymarket bombing that had occurred earlier in the year. In 1893, Illinois Governor John Altgeld granted a posthumous pardon because he, and his 7 codefendants were actually all innocent of the Haymarket bombing. None of them had even been present at Haymarket square when the bomb was thrown. All 8 were, however, anarchists, and were railroaded because of the political beliefs and affiliations.

#LaborHistory #WorkingClass #haymarket #anarchism #prison #DeathPenalty #EightHourDay #chicago #police #PoliceBrutality

rotenotes boosted

Yesterday, the children of Gaza decided to hold their own press conference outside of Al-Shifa Hospital in #Gaza.

The spokesperson says:

"Since October 7th, we have been subjected to genocide, killing, displacement, and bombs falling on our head in front of the whole world.

They are lying to the world, saying that they are targeting resistance fighters, but as children, we have escaped death more than once. We, as children, have escaped death more than once.

We came to Al-Shifa Hospital as a safe place after we were repeatedly exposed to bombing. We were surprised that we were once again exposed to death after the occupation targeted Al-Shifa Hospital.

The occupation starves us. For many days, we have no water or food, or even bread. We drink contaminated water.

We came to shout as children, urging you all to protect us. Stop the death. We want life. We want peace. We want a trial for the killers. We want medicine. We want food. We want education. We want life."

And the times become ripe for the emergence of one of the
most influential abstractions of the modern age—the notion that the
relations between men as mutually interdependent producers of
commodities somehow lie at the basis of all their other social
relations. The Classical labour theory of value was closely associated
with this notion. If we regard society as consisting in essence of an
association of separate producers who live by mutually exchanging the
products of their different labours, we are likely to come to think of
the exchange of these products as being in essence the exchange /of
quantities of social labour. /And if we begin thinking in these terms,
we may well eventually conclude that the /value /of a commodity—i.e.,
its power of purchasing or commanding other commodities in exchange-is a
quality conferred upon it by virtue of the fact that a certain portion of
the labour force of society has been allocated to its production.
[Ronald L. - Studies in the Theory of (1956; second edition 1973), p. 39]

Using surplus value, one of the key
concepts of /Capital/, as the central organizing principle of Marx’s
analysis of capitalism, we can think of the three volumes of /Capital
/as dealing with, respectively,^16

* the generation and accumulation of surplus value (Volume I);

* the realization of surplus value (Volume II);

* the distribution of surplus value (Volume III).


In this chapter, we begin the study of Marx’s political economy of
capitalism by working through the details of the argument in Volume 1 of
/Capital /(Marx, 1992). We know from the discussion in the previous
chapter that Volume 1 of Capital (Marx, 1992) is devoted to a study of
the process of production of capital. Using the key concept of surplus
value, we can restate the object of investigation in Volume 1 as the
/generation /and /accumulation /of surplus value. To understand capital,
one needs to understand surplus value – because capital generates and is
generated by surplus value. But, to understand surplus value, one needs
to first understand value; and to understand value, one needs to
understand the commodity. That is the reason why the analysis in Volume 1
of /Capital /begins with the commodity, which Marx identifes as the
‘elementary form’ of wealth in capitalist societies. [DB-LC, 48]

[Deepankar - The Logic of : An Introduction to Theory](


Steelworker standing on beam
© George Eastman House

My inquiry led me to the conclusion that neither legal relations nor
political forms could be comprehended whether by themselves or on the
basis of a so-called general development of the human mind, but that on
the contrary they originate in the material conditions of life, the
totality of which Hegel, following the example of English and French
thinkers of the eighteenth century embraces within the term ‘civil
society’; that the anatomy of this civil society, however, has to be
sought in political economy. (, 1976, p. 20)


[Roman Rozdolsky - The Making of Marx's 'Capital'.](gruppegrundrisse.files.wordpre)

[RR-TMMC, 533-35]

Ο Μαρξ ρωτά πώς μπορούμε να προσδιορίσουμε την εργασία ως ουσία της αξίας εάν, στην πραγματικότητα, κάθε συγκεκριμένη εργασία εξυπηρετεί διαφορετικό στόχο και
εκτελείται από διαφορετικά άτομα διαφορετικών ικανοτήτων, δεξιοτήτων κ.λπ.; Πως
μπορεί η άπειρη ποικιλία των διαφορετικών ειδών επαγγελματικών και
ατομικών εργασιών να περιοριστεί σε ένα κοινό παρονομαστή; Η απάντησή του είναι ότι αυτό
είναι δυνατό: «Όσο ποικίλα τα χρήσιμα είδη εργασίας, ή οι
παραγωγικές δραστηριότητες, είναι ένα /φυσιολογικό/ δεδομενο, ότι είναι
λειτουργίες του ανθρώπινου οργανισμού, και ότι κάθε τέτοια λειτουργία, όποια κι αν
μπορεί να είναι η φύση ή η μορφή τους, είναι ουσιαστικά η δαπάνη του ανθρώπινου
εγκέφαλου, νεύρων, μυών και αισθητηρίων οργάνων.» [Κεφάλαιο Ι, σελ. 164 (71)]
[RR-TMMC, 533]

Στην πραγματικότητα,
ωστόσο, είδαμε μόνο το πρώτο μέρος της λύσης του Μαρξ για το
πρόβλημα μέχρι στιγμής, καθώς, αν και η εργασία μπορεί να μειωθεί, φυσιολογικά,
στην απλή δαπάνη εργατικής δύναμης σε κάθε κοινωνία, τέτοια
μείωση είναι μόνο απαραίτητη στην πράξη και στην πραγματικότητα λαμβάνει χώρα σε ένα συγκεκριμένο στάδιο της ιστορικής εξέλιξης. Αυτό συμβαίνει μόνο σε μια
κοινωνία ιδιοκτητών εμπορευμάτων όπου η ανταλλαγή αποτελεί τη μοναδική οικονομική
σύνδεση μεταξύ ατόμων και, κατά συνέπεια, όπου τα εμπορεύματα
θεωρούνται ως προϊόντα μέσης, αδιαφοροποίητης εργασίας –
«ανεξάρτητα από τη μορφή της δαπάνης της». [Κεφάλαιο Ι, σελ. 128 (38)]
[RR-TMMC, 534]

Ωστόσο, αυτό δεν απαιτεί μηχανική μέτρηση της φυσιολογικής
δαπάνης εργατικής δύναμης, αφού είναι η ίδια η κοινωνία, η αυθόρμητη
κοινωνική διαδικασία «πίσω από τις πλάτες των παραγωγών», που εξισώνει τις
διάφορες μορφές εργασίας στην αγορά και τις μειώνει στο μέσο όρο
«κοινωνικά αναγκαία» εργασία. [πάνω σελ. 525 επ.]
Από την άλλη πλευρά, η «ισότητα της
ανθρώπινης εργασίας σε μια τέτοια κοινωνία αποκτά μια «υλική μορφή. . . στην
ίση αντικειμενικότητα των προϊόντων της εργασίας ως αξιών»,
[Κεφάλαιο Ι, σελ. 164 (72)] και μόνο σε
μια τέτοια κοινωνία κάνει «μια καθορισμένη κοινωνική σχέση μεταξύ των ανθρώπων. . . να παίρνει
τη φανταστική μορφή μιας σχέσης μεταξύ πραγμάτων». [RR-TMMC, 534]

Ποια συμπεράσματα μπορούν να εξαχθούν από αυτή τη σύντομη σύνοψη της θεωρίας του Μαρξ της
αξίας? Σαφώς ότι είναι αδύνατο να αναγνωριστεί η αποκλειστικά κοινωνική
σημασία της αξίας, εκτός εάν θεωρηθεί ιστορικό
φαινόμενο' και ότι είναι εξίσου αδύνατο να αρνηθεί κανείς τον ιστορικό
χαρακτήρα της αξίας χωρίς να δεί σε αυτήν μια «ποιότητα ανάλογη με το βάρος
ή το χρώμα», δηλαδή μια «τεχνική» κατηγορία.

Αυτό παρέχει την εξήγηση για το γιατί η θεωρία του Μαρξ παρερμηνεύτηκε
[535] τόσο συχνά
από τους επικριτές του. Ανίκανοι να συλλάβουν τον ουσιαστικά
ιστορικό χαρακτήρα των οικονομικών κατηγοριών, απλώς συμπεραίνουν: Αν
υπάρχει κάτι όπως η «αξία», τότε πρέπει να είναι η φυσική (physical) ή η φυσική (natural)
ποιότητα των εμπορευμάτων. Με αυτόν τον τρόπο δεν ασκούν κριτική στον Μαρξ, αλλά
τη δική τους στενά νατουραλιστική αντίληψη! [RR-TMMC, 534-35]

asks, how can we designate as the substance of if, in
actual fact, each concrete labour serves a different aim, and is
performed by different individuals of differing ability, skill etc.? How
can the infinite variety of the different kinds of professional and
individual labour be reduced to a common denominator? His answer is that
it is possible: ‘However varied the useful kinds of labour, or
productive activities, it is a /physiological/ fact, that they are
functions of the human organism, and that each such function, whatever
may be its nature or its form, is essentially the expenditure of human
brain, nerves, muscles and sense-organs.’^14 [Capital I, p. 164 (71)]
[RR-TMMC, 533]

In fact,
however, we have only seen the first part of Marx’s solution to the
problem so far, since, although labour can be reduced, physiologically,
to the simple expenditure of labour-power in any society, such a
reduction is only necessary in practice and actually takes place at a
particular stage of historical development. This only occurs in a
society of commodity owners where exchange constitutes the sole economic
connection between individuals, and consequently where commodities are
to be regarded as products of average, undifferentiated labour –
‘without regard to the form of its expenditure’.^15 [Capital I, p. 128 (38)]
[RR-TMMC, 534]

However, this requires no mechanical measure of the physiological
expenditure of labour-power, since it is society itself, the spontaneous
social process ‘behind the backs of the producers’, which equates the
various forms of labour on the market and reduces them to average
‘socially necessary’ labour.^16 [above p.  525ff]
On the other hand, the ‘equality of
human labour’ in such a society obtains a ‘material form . . . in the
equal objectivity of the products of labour as values’,^17
[Capital I, p.  164 (72)] and only in
such a society does ‘a definite social relation between men . . . assume
the fantastic form of a relation between things’. [RR-TMMC, 534]

What conclusions can be drawn from this short resume of Marx’s theory of
value? Clearly that it is impossible to recognise the exclusively social
significance of value, unless it is regarded as an historical
phenomenon; and that it is equally impossible to deny the historical
character of value without seeing in it a ‘quality analogous to weight
or colour’, i.e. a ‘technical’ category.

This provides the explanation as to why Marx’s theory has been
[535] so often
misinterpreted by his critics. Incapable of grasping the essentially
historical character of economic categories, they simply deduce: If
there is such a thing as ‘value’, then it must be a physical or natural
quality of commodities. In this way it is not Marx they criticise, but
their own narrowly naturalistic conception! [RR-TMMC, 534-35]

Artwork: [Le Déjeuner des canotiers
Artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Year 1881[1]
Medium Oil on canvas
Dimensions 129.9 cm × 172.7 cm (51 in × 68 in)
Location The Phillips Collection[2], Washington, DC](

Ο αναγνωρίζει 4 είδη :

() (αιτία του πράττειν ορθώς τα πράγματα)
() (του εν κοινωνιαις εν συνναλλαγμασι δικαιοπραγειν)
() (του εν κινδύνοις και φοβεροις μη εξιστασθαι τρειν (δειλιασει και φύγει), αλλά μένειν
() (κραττείν των επιθυμιών και υπο μηδεμιας ηδονής δουλούσθαι, αλλά κοσμίως ζην.

[Marx's Capital TOC](
[Reading Marx’s Capital | social and political theory](

[translate in english and expand on "η υπεραξία και το κερδος δεν απλα οικονομικο-φιλοσοφικες εννοιες' εχουν και μαθηματικη σχεση μεταξυ τους.... κερδος = υπεραξία / μεταβλητο κεφαλαιο(μισθοι που αγοραζουν δημιουργουσα αξια αρα και υπεραξια ζωντανη εργατικη ικανοτητα ή δυναμη) και σταθερο κεφαλαιο (αντικειμενοποιημενη/νεκρη εργασια)"

The term "η υπεραξία και το κέρδος δεν απλά είναι οικονομικο-φιλοσοφικές έννοιες" translates to "surplus value and profit are not just economic-philosophical concepts."

The statement goes on to establish a mathematical relationship between these concepts: "κέρδος = υπεραξία / μεταβλητό κεφάλαιο (μισθοί που αγοράζουν δημιουργούν δημιουργική αξία, άρα και υπεραξία, ζωντανή εργατική ικανότητα ή δύναμη) και σταθερό κεφάλαιο (αντικειμενοποιημένη/νεκρή εργασία)."

In English, this can be expanded as follows:

"The concepts of surplus value and profit extend beyond mere economic and philosophical notions. They can be understood through a mathematical relationship: profit equals surplus value divided by variable capital (wages that purchase productive labor, hence generating surplus value from living labor power or capability), and constant capital (objectified/dead labor)."

This statement highlights the interconnectedness of economic and philosophical ideas with mathematical formulations, emphasizing the intricate relationship between labor, value creation, and profitability. It underscores the importance of recognizing the mathematical underpinnings of economic concepts for a more comprehensive understanding of their implications.]

[translate in english and write an essay in english for "στον 1ο τομο του Κεφαλαιου αντικειμενο ειναι η παραγωγη υπεραξιας . στο 2ο τομο ειναι η πραγματοποίση της υπεραξίας στην κυκλοφορια (των εμπορευματων). στον 3ο τομο ειναι η κατανομη της υπεραξίας: σε (βιομηχανικο/εμπορικο) κερδος, σε τοκο (επι καποιου κεφαλαιου: παραγωγικου (profit of enterprise) η/και χρηματικου: interest), σε γαιοπροσοδο (rent) ....πριν απο αυτο βρισκεται η μετατροπη της υπεραξίας σε κερδος και των αξιων σε τιμες παραγωγης (prices of production): μεσω αυτης της μετατροπης κρυβεται η εκμεταλλευτικη σχεση, γιατι ετσι το κερδος φαινεται να προκύπτει τοσο απο το μεταβλητο οσο και απο το σταθερο κεφαλαιο, κατι που παιρνει την πιο μυστικοποιμενη μορφη της υπεραξίας στον τοκο (interest: Χρήμα-Χρήμα’ με Χ’>Χ) (οπου η διαμεσολαβηση απο την παραγωγικη εργασια [Εργατικη δύναμη/Μεσα παραγωγης / Εμπορευματων (Χ-Ε-Χ’)] στη διαδικασια αξιοποιησης του κεφαλαιου εχει χαθει)”

Title: Marx's Analysis of Surplus Value and Capital Circulation

In the first volume of "Capital," Karl Marx delves into the fundamental concept of surplus value production. He meticulously dissects the process through which capital accumulates, revealing the intricate dynamics underlying capitalist economies. Moving forward to the second volume, Marx shifts his focus towards the realization of surplus value within the sphere of circulation, predominantly within the realm of commodities.

The third volume marks a crucial juncture in Marx's exploration, as it centers on the distribution of surplus value. This distribution occurs across various channels, including industrial and commercial profits, interest on capital (both productive, categorized as profit of enterprise, and monetary, recognized as interest), and land rent. These distinct avenues elucidate the multifaceted nature of surplus value's dispersion within the capitalist system.

Preceding this comprehensive analysis is the transformation of surplus value into profit and the conversion of values into production prices. Concealed within this transformation lies the exploitative relationship inherent in capitalist production. This transformation is pivotal in understanding the obscured form of surplus value, particularly in relation to interest.

Interest, represented as (Χ-Χ' with Χ'>Χ), encapsulates a critical aspect of this process. It signifies a departure from the direct involvement of productive labor (Labor Power / Means of Production / Commodities) in the capital utilization process. This shift highlights the evolution from a labor-centric production model to a more financially driven system.

Marx's exposition on these intricate stages provides a profound insight into the inner workings of capitalist economies. The transformation of surplus value into profit, and subsequently into interest, exemplifies the nuanced dynamics of exploitation within this economic framework. By unraveling these layers, Marx sheds light on the mechanisms that perpetuate the accumulation of capital and the perpetuation of class-based disparities.

In conclusion, Marx's trilogy of "Capital" offers a comprehensive framework for understanding the generation, realization, and distribution of surplus value within capitalist economies. The conversion of surplus value into profit and production prices unveils the veiled dimensions of exploitation, with interest serving as a critical intermediary. Through this meticulous analysis, Marx provides invaluable insights into the functioning of capitalist systems, contributing significantly to economic and philosophical discourse.]

Artwork: The Misers, by Q. Matsys (
Caldesi & Montecchi (British, active 1850s)

Photograph of "The Misers," a painting by a follower of Marinus van Reymerswaele, but had at times been attributed to Quinten Metsys. The painting depicts two men, one of whom is pointing at a ledger in which his colleague is writing. Their wealth is represented by their rich clothing, as well as through the gold coins and jewelry on the table in front of them.

“I see a horseman disappearing into
the evening mist. Will he travel through woods
or across wild plains? Where is he heading? I don't know.
Tomorrow, will I be stretched out above or
below the earth? I don't know.”

― Omar , Edward Fitzgerald's The of Omar Khayyam

“The scent of wine rising
from my will be so strong
that it will passers-by.
There will be such an atmosphere of serenity
that couples in will find it impossible
to tear themselves away.”

― Omar , Edward Fitzgerald's The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

“What is my true substance?
What will remain of me after my ?
Our is as short as a raging fire:
flames the passer-by soon forgets,
ashes the wind blows away.
A man's life.”

― Omar , Edward Fitzgerald's The of Omar Khayyam

Καμιά αλλαγή, καμιά παύση, καμιά ελπίδα. Κι όμως αντέχω!

(«Προμηθεύς λυόμενος»)

[ in

In Johann Gottlieb Fichte's philosophy, the concept of "Anstoss" holds a significant place. Fichte uses this term to describe a foundational moment or initial resistance that is necessary for the self to become aware of itself and to differentiate itself from the external world. It's a pivotal concept in Fichte's development of his theory of subjective idealism.

Here's a more detailed explanation:

Subjective Idealism:

Fichte is known for his development of subjective idealism, which is a branch of German Idealism. Subjective idealism posits that the mind or the self is the ultimate reality, and it is through the self's activity that the external world is constructed. In this view, the external world is a product of the self's mental activity.


In Fichte's philosophy, "Anstoss" refers to the initial resistance or opposition that the self encounters when it attempts to assert its own existence. It is a moment of conflict or contradiction that arises when the self, in its striving for self-awareness and self-assertion, encounters something that resists or challenges it.

This initial resistance is crucial for the self to become aware of itself as distinct from the external world. It is through this resistance that the self is able to differentiate itself and recognize its own existence.

Role of Anstoss:

Anstoss is a foundational concept in Fichte's philosophy because it marks the starting point of self-consciousness and the process of self-realization. Without this initial resistance, the self would not have the impetus to reflect on its own existence and develop an awareness of itself as an independent entity.

The encounter with Anstoss leads to a process of reflection and self-assertion, where the self seeks to overcome the resistance and establish its own identity. This ongoing process of self-assertion and self-realization forms the basis of Fichte's philosophy.

Overall, Anstoss in Fichte's philosophy plays a crucial role in the development of self-consciousness and subjective idealism, providing the impetus for the self to recognize and assert its own existence.

[Let's illustrate Fichte's concept of "Anstoss" with a simple example:

Imagine a young child who is just beginning to develop a sense of self-awareness. Up to this point, the child has been primarily experiencing the world through sensory perceptions without a clear sense of self. Now, the child starts to recognize themselves as a separate individual.

1. *The Child (the "I"):* This is the subject or self in Fichte's philosophy. It represents the young child's emerging sense of self-awareness.

2. *The World (the "not-I"):* This is everything external to the child—the people, objects, and events in the child's environment.

Now, consider a situation where the child reaches out to grab a toy:

- *Desire for the Toy:* The child wants to play with a particular toy. This desire arises from the child's sense of self (the "I").

- *Encountering Resistance (Anstoss):* As the child tries to grab the toy, they encounter resistance. Maybe the toy is out of reach, or another child is holding it. This resistance is the "Anstoss" in Fichte's philosophy—the initial check or opposition that the self (the "I") encounters from the external world (the "not-I").

- *Self-Awareness Develops:* It's precisely because of this resistance that the child becomes more aware of themselves as a separate individual. They realize that there is something distinct from themselves—the world—that can oppose their desires. This awareness is a crucial step in the development of self-consciousness.

- *Response to Resistance:* In response to the resistance, the child may try to reach harder for the toy or negotiate with the other child. They take action to overcome the initial check (Anstoss) and achieve their goal.

In this scenario, the concept of "Anstoss" is evident as the child's self-awareness emerges through the encounter with resistance from the external world. The opposition or check from the external world serves as a catalyst for the child's self-consciousness and the recognition of their own individuality. Fichte's philosophy is concerned with how the self navigates and transcends such resistance to establish its own existence and freedom.]

Artwork: [George
Both Members of This Club, 1909

oil on canvas
overall: 115 x 160.5 cm (45 1/4 x 63 3/16 in.)
framed: 133 x 177.8 cm (52 3/8 x 70 in.)

Credit Line
Chester Dale Collection

Accession Number

Artists / Makers
George Bellows (painter) American, 1882 - 1925

This image is in the public domain.

“A map of the world that does not include is not worth even glancing at, for it leaves out the one country at which Humanity is always landing. And when Humanity lands there, it looks out, and, seeing a better country, sets sail. Progress is the realisation of Utopias.”
― Oscar , The Soul of Man Under Socialism

Artwork: [Arnold - Isle of the Dead: "Basel" version, 1880](

“Yesterday This Day’s Madness did prepare;
To-morrow’s Silence, Triumph, or Despair:
Drink! for you know not whence you came, nor why:
Drink! for you know not why you go, nor where.”
― Omar

Artwork: [A Bacchanalian Revel before a Term
Nicolas (1594–1665)
The National Gallery, London ](

“For the recognition of has really harmed , and obscured it, by confusing a man with what he possesses. It has led Individualism entirely astray. It has made gain not growth its aim. So that man thought that the important thing was to have, and did not know that the important thing is to be. The true perfection of man lies, not in what man has, but in what man is.”

― Oscar , The Soul of Man under Socialism

“Tis but a day we sojourn here below,
And all the gain we get is grief and woe,
Then, leaving our life’s riddles all unsolved,
And burdened with regrets, we have to go.”
― Omar , Rubaiyat

Artwork: [The Dance of Death (1493) by Michael , from the Nuremberg Chronicle of Hartmann Schedel](

“All is quite degrading. It degrades those who exercise it, and degrades those over whom it is exercised. When it is violently, grossly, and cruelly used, it produces a good effect by creating, or at any rate bringing out, the spirit of revolt and individualism that is to kill it. When it is used with a certain amount of kindness, and accompanied by prizes and rewards, it is dreadfully demoralising. People, in that case, are less conscious of the horrible pressure that is being put on them, and so go through their lives in a sort of coarse comfort, like petted animals, without ever realising that they are probably thinking other people’s thoughts, living by other people’s standards, wearing practically what one may call other people’s second-hand clothes, and never being themselves for a single moment.”

― Oscar , The Soul of Man Under Socialism

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